Chemicals, Materials & Ingredients

Hazard List graphicBelow is a list of some of the worst offenders of toxic chemicals across product categories, as well as chemicals we frequently receive questions about, including what they are, where they’re found, and how they impact human or environmental health, and aquatic or animal life. This list is intended to provide guidance on common hazards in the marketplace.

Each of these is backed by science from government agencies, scientific organizations, or research specialists from around the world. This is by no means a comprehensive list of chemicals that are not permitted in MADE SAFE certified products; that list is well into the thousands and is too cumbersome to share in a digestible format. Rather than expect people to sift through endless lists of chemicals, we provide the MADE SAFE seal on products for instant assurance.

This is why the MADE SAFE seal exists: we’ve done the hard work and the homework for you. We vet product ingredients for toxic chemicals known to harm human health and ecosystems.

MADE SAFE’s Hazard List™ is a shortcut to knowing more about what IS NOT included in any of our certified products no matter the brand, type of product, or where it’s sold.

We hope one day to work ourselves out of existence – when ultimately, every product on shelves is made with safe ingredients.

In the meantime, we believe in arming people with knowledge while we go about changing the way products are made. See the Hazard List™ below, as well more on the MADE SAFE Screening Process, our full Ingredient Database, and our library of What’s in Products.


Hazard List

A-D  |  E-O  |  P-V  |  Exceptions  |  References

A-D

This ingredient is classified both as an established carcinogen[1] and a likely carcinogen[2],[3] by multiple agencies. 1,4-dioxane is not intentionally added to products; rather, it is a contaminant by-product created when other specific ingredients are mixed together. Because the chemical is not intentionally added to products, it is not required to be listed on labels. It is often found in products that foam, such as laundry detergent, shampoo, bubble bath and baby wash. Chemicals that can be contaminated with 1,4-dioxane include sodium laureth sulfate (see: Surfactants) and all PEG compounds (see: Polyethylene Glycol Compounds). Chemicals that include the clauses xynol, ceteareth, and oleth are also commonly contaminated. Read more.

Heavy metal ingredient that can be a neurotoxin at high doses and in occupational settings.[4] Aluminum compounds are also used as pesticides, in medicines, and even medical devices. More than 25 different aluminum compounds are used in cosmetics. Aluminum is most well-known as a wetness and odor control in deodorant and antiperspirants. Aluminum chlorohydrate is one of the most common aluminum compounds used in cosmetics, especially in antiperspirants.[5] Scientists do not currently adequately understand how aluminum is absorbed through the skin, and therefore cannot assess the risk aluminum presents through using personal care products. However, three European reports assessing safety concluded that aluminum is not safe for use in cosmetics as it is currently used.[6] Because of aluminum’s potential and documented adverse effects, it is not allowed for use in certified products (see: Heavy Metals).

Example aluminum ingredients not permitted:

  • Aluminum acetate
  • Aluminum caprylate
  • Aluminum chloride
  • Aluminum chlorohydrate
  • Aluminum hydroxide
  • Aluminum oxide
  • Aluminum stearate

Ammonia is a clear gas that readily dissolves in liquid. It is abundantly naturally-occurring, but is also made for use in detergents, cleaning products, fertilizer, and hair dyes, as well as other industrial purposes. Ammonia can cause severe eye and respiratory irritation,[7] and even bronchitis and/or pneumonia.[8] At high levels, ammonia can cause health effects in occupational settings.[9] At low levels, ammonia can cause problems in individuals with asthma or who are sensitive.[10]

When ammonia comes in contact with the skin, it dissolves in the water present in the skin and transforms into ammonium hydroxide.[11] Ammonium hydroxide is a chemical capable of causing necrosis of whatever tissue it comes into contact with.[12] It is also an asthmagen and a sensitizer.[13]

Ammonia is often mixed with other chemical ingredients to create ammonium compounds, which are the forms of the chemical that are most often used as personal care product ingredients. Ammonia compounds like ammonium hydroxide, ammonium chloride, and ammonium glycyrrhizate are three common ammonium compounds used in personal care products.

There is little scientific information on the neurological, reproductive, and developmental effects of dermal exposure to ammonia.[14] Exposure via inhalation is the most dangerous route of exposure. Ammonia is well-known to be toxic to aquatic life.[15]

Quats are a type of ingredient that are composed of permanently charged ions. By modifying the ingredient’s molecular chains, different properties result, giving quats the ability to act in products in different capacities including as antibacterials, surfactants, anti-statics, preservatives, and moisturizers.[16]

New research on quats suggests that two of the most commonly used quats (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and didecyl diemethyl ammonium chloride) may be endocrine active ingredients that impact fertility in mice from ambient exposure.[17] While this research isn’t comprehensive, it suggests that quat compounds could be endocrine active within the human body too; more research is necessary.[18]

Data already exists linking some quats such as benzalkonium chloride to developmental, reproductive, and aquatic toxicity.[19] Quaternium-15, which releases formaldehyde, is a known carcinogen.[20] Quats may also cause the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines (see: Nitrosamines).[21]

These compounds may be found in disinfectant cleaners, sunscreens, moisturizers, conditioners, hairsprays, feminine washes, and more. There are many existing data gaps in research of quaternary compounds. Made Safe examines each quaternary compound with aim to close these data gaps.

Example quaternary compounds not permitted:

  • Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs). Also called alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chlorides (ADBACs)
  • Benzethonium chloride
  • Cetalkonium chloride
  • Cetrimonium chloride
  • Ditallow dimethyl ammonium chloride (DTDMAC). Also called quaternium-18
  • Didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC)
  • Quaternium- 7, 15, 26, 31, 60

These ingredients are designed to kill germs and are found in liquid soap, soap bars, toothpaste, hand sanitizers, cleaning products, and more.

Example antibacterials and antimicrobials not permitted:

  • Triclosan and triclocarban (see: Triclosan and Triclocarban)
  • Benzalkonium chloride and benzethonium chloride (see: Ammonium Quaternary Compounds)
  • Chloroxylenol (see: Chloroxylenol)
  • Isothiazolinone Preservatives (see: Isothiazolinone Preservatives)

Artificial colors can be derived from coal tar (see: Coal Tar Ingredients), but are more commonly made from petroleum.[22] A number of artificial colors, individually and in combination, have been associated with increased hyperactivity in children, including those with pre-existing hyperactivity and without.[23],[24],[25],[26] As a result of studies on hyperactivity, the United Kingdom banned a number of food dyes,[27] some of which are still legal in the United States.

Very little independent published research on artificial colorings exists, including research on mixtures of dyes, which are very common. There are significant data gaps, including very few long-term studies.[28] However, what research exists is cause for alarm. In addition to hyperactivity in children, food dyes have been linked to hypersensitivity,[29] allergic reactions,[30] hastened dermal absorption in damaged skin,[31] genotoxicity, and brain, bladder, and testes tumor growth.[32] Red 3, though recognized as a carcinogen by the FDA and banned in cosmetics, is still allowed for use in foods.[33]

The use of Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6 account of 90 percent of all dyes used in commerce.[34] All three colorings can be contaminated with chemicals that are carcinogens.[35]

Although there are many existing data gaps in research of food colorings, a number of organizations have called for their ban. Colors can be added to foods, cosmetics, hair dyes, and personal care products. Every color and dye is subjected to our scientific process.

Example artificial colors not permitted:

  • Blue 1
  • Blue 2
  • Green 3
  • Red 3
  • Red 40
  • Yellow 5
  • Yellow 6 

Artificial flavors are comprised of ingredients that appear to be chemically identical to naturally-occurring flavors. Like fragrance formulations, flavor formulations can be made up of many unique chemical ingredients, including hormone disruptors and allergens (see: Fragrance). Flavor formulations also contain ingredients called adjuvants[36] that are not intended to provide taste, like emulsifiers, solvents, preservatives, flavor modifiers, and more.[37] Compounded flavors (those containing many unique ingredients) typically only contain less than one percent of flavoring ingredients; the rest is composed of adjuvants.[38]

Synthetic flavor formulas are a backdoor for many chemicals to make their way into products. Because they are protected under federal law’s classification of trade secrets, individual ingredients in flavor formulations can go undisclosed, and can simply be listed as “artificial flavor” on packaging. Artificial flavors are found in cosmetics, flavored lip gloss and lip balm, flavored condoms and lube, food, and more. Artificial flavors are not banned in MADE SAFE certified products as a blanket rule; each ingredient is evaluated through our screening process. Read more.

A common sunscreen ingredient (see: Sunscreen Chemicals). It is widely known this common ingredient is not photostable; when used without a stabilizing ingredient, UV light can break down avobenzone, rendering it an ineffective sunscreen. The breakdown of avobenzone can also cause the generation of free radicals within the skin. Free radicals can lead to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, which can lead to damage of lipids, DNA,[39] and the cell overall.[40]

A local anesthetic found in perfume, cologne, hairspray, deodorant, shaving cream, shampoo, and soap. It’s likely an endocrine-disrupting chemical,[41] which may be irritating to the eyes and skin.[42]

Sunscreen chemical (see: Sunscreen Chemicals) used in sunscreens, personal care products, cosmetics, and fragrance. Strong evidence indicates that benzophenone is a carcinogen.[43],[44] There is also some evidence of endocrine disruption.[45] The ingredient is toxic to aquatic life[46] and persistent in the environment.[47],[48] This ingredient is also called BMDBM, alpha-Oxodiphenylmethane, alpha-Oxoditane, benzoylbenzene, among others. This ingredient is distinct from benzophenone-3 (see: Oxybenzone).

There are reportedly more than fifty bisphenol structures, including BPA, BPS, BPF, BPE, and others. The most data exist on BPA,[49],[50] but numerous bisphenols[51],[52] have also been linked to hormone disruption and early puberty. Evidence also suggests BPA alternatives may be linked to breast cancer.[53] Found in baby bottles, sippy cups, and other feeding containers, plastic food packaging, and canned food liners. Read more.

See: Bisphenols.

Bug repellents are pesticides (see: Pesticides). They are made of both active and inert ingredients. It’s common for products to list only active ingredients on labels. The rest are listed simply as “inert ingredients,” which are ingredients that are not considered active repelling chemicals, but are used as solvents, preservatives, fragrances, or for other purposes. Many of those ingredients are also found within this list. Bug repellents are often formulated with synergistic chemicals that are designed to make the repellent work more effectively.

Some natural ingredients like essential oils can be used as insect repellent. These ingredients are subject to our screening process. [Download the full report Bug Repellent: What’s In It? and Fact Sheets.] For more information on bug spray ingredients, see their individual entries.

Example insect repellent ingredients not permitted:

  • DEET
  • High risk pesticides
  • Pyrethroids like cyfluthrin and permethrin

The MADE SAFE screening doesn’t allow the inclusion of high-risk pesticides (see: Pesticides). Therefore, we only approve products made without these chemicals, usually focusing on those that take a natural approach to bug repellent. Natural repellent may work for casual settings to diminish bites, but it cannot prevent disease. With the rise of Zika virus and concern for other mosquito-borne disease, we recognize there is a time and place for the use of bug repellent products that would not pass our screening process. We urge shoppers to become informed and stay on top of advice from the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization.

Synthetic antioxidants used to extend shelf life. These are linked to a wide range of health problems. BHA is described as inherently toxic to humans,[54] and has been linked to reproductive toxicity,[55] developmental toxicity,[56] and cancer.[57],[58],[59] BHT is closely related to BHA; there are many existing data gaps in the research on this ingredient. However, BHT is a toluene-based ingredient, which is associated with many adverse health effects (see: Toluene). Found in cosmetics, personal care products (mainly shampoos, deodorants, body lotions), and numerous food items. Read more.

Linked to kidney[60] and bone damage,[61],[62] reproductive toxicity,[63] as well as lung cancer.[64],[65] Cadmium, a heavy metal, is found in color cosmetics, painted toys, furniture, and children’s jewelry (see: Heavy Metals).

Commonly found in household cleaning products and can cause serious skin and eye damage, and irritation.[66] Bleach is harmful to aquatic life, both acutely and chronically.[67] The use of bleach in manufacturing processes can create dioxins (see: Dioxins).[68]

An antibacterial chemical mostly found in hand soap and hand sanitizer (see: Antibacterials and Antimicrobials). With US federal mandate requiring the phase-out of triclosan and triclocarban (see: Triclosan and Triclocarban) in hand soaps, chloroxylenol will likely serve as a common replacement. There is limited evidence of endocrine disrupting capabilities of chloroxylenol.[69] While there is limited research on this ingredient, because of chloroxylenol’s potential endocrine active capabilities, Made Safe exercises the precautionary principle and does not permit the ingredient.

Many are known carcinogens[70],[71],[72] derived from burning coal. They are used as colorants in hair dye, anti-dandruff agents, and to make color additives (see: Artificial Colors and Dyes). Also found in shampoo, scalp treatments, soaps, and lotions.

Structurally resembles the notorious chemical DDT[73] and has a similar mode of action.[74] The chemical has endocrine disrupting capabilities,[75],[76] is a skin sensitizer, and a skin and eye irritant.[77] Cyfluthrin can alter sodium and potassium ion pumps in nerves, affecting their ability to function properly.[78],[79] In laboratory animals, cyfluthrin caused significant behavior changes[80] and disrupted liver function.[81] This chemical is toxic to aquatic life in the long term and the short term, as documented on multiple authoritative lists.[82] This chemical is used as a bug spray ingredient (see: Bug Repellent Ingredients) and is a pesticide (see: Pesticides).

Found in sprays, and wipes designed to repel insects (see: Bug Repellent Chemicals and Pesticides). Large doses of DEET have been linked to skin blisters, seizures, memory loss, headaches, stiffness in joins, shortness of breath,[83] and skin irritation.[84] DEET is absorbed quickly through the skin,[85] and when mixed with some sunscreen chemicals, it was found to be absorbed even more quickly.[86]

DEET is a documented neurotoxin.[87],[88] When mixed with permethrin, another pesticide (see: Permethrin), the mixture can cause neural death in the brain,[89] and disease in the offspring of exposed adults.[90] There is very little information on DEET’s carcinogenic, endocrine disrupting or reproductive effects.[91] See more.

This is a class of chemically similar substances that are not intentionally added ingredients to products[92], but are by-products in the production of substances like pesticides,[93] iron, steel[94] and bleached products like paper and feminine care like pads and tampons.[95] Over 400 compounds in the dioxin-furan family have been identified.[96] Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are also considered to be under this umbrella.[332] Dioxins and furans are associated with a number of negative health and environmental impacts. 2,3,7,8 TCDD, a very common chemical in this family, and the most toxic,[333]  is likely a carcinogen.[334] This chemical is so toxic that it is used as a means to measure the other toxicity of compounds in the dioxin and furan family.[335] Other dioxins and furans are also associated with cancer.[336],[337] A number of chemicals in this family are likely endocrine disruptors, developmental toxins, and reproductive toxins.[338],[339],[340],[341],[342],[343] They are also associated with other health effects in people and/or laboratory animals like skin disorders, liver issues, and immune system problems.[344] Dioxins are considered POPs, persistent environmental pollutants; they stick around in the environment without degrading.[345] Dioxins biomagnify up the food chain, meaning they’re present in higher concentrations in animals at the top of the food chain.[346] Read more.

E-O

In a process called ethoxylation, ethylene oxide, a chemical associated with multiple forms of cancer,[97] is added to other ingredients to make them less harsh. Ethoxylated ingredients include sodium laureth sulfate, and many chemicals that end in “eth,” which often denotes ethoxylation, like ceteareth and oleth.[98] They also include PEGs like polysorbates (see: Polyethylene Glycol Compounds). Ethoxylated ingredients can be contaminated with ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane (see: 1,4-Dioxane).

Used as an antifreeze and as a solvent. The chemical is highly toxic when consumed;[99] however, there are limited studies on exposure dermally or through inhalation.[100] Scientists don’t have enough information on these routes of exposure to determine what effects ethylene glycol might have on the human body. Because of this uncertainty, Made Safe exercises the precautionary principle and doesn’t permit this ingredient.

See: Ethoxylated Ingredients.

These are linked to long-term impacts like endocrine disruption,[101],[102] lower IQ,[103],[104] hyperactivity,[105] altered sexual development,[106],[107] fertility issues,[108] thyroid dysfunction,[109] and cancer.[110] Many flame retardant chemicals are persistent in the environment.[111],[112] What’s worse, they don’t actually provide more time to escape in a fire.[113] Found in foam-based furniture like mattresses (see: Foam), sofas, rug pads, some clothing like children’s pajamas, electronics, cars, car seats, and more.

The groups of flame retardants listed below are of the most concern.[114] However, because many flame retardant chemical mixtures are proprietary information, it is difficult to determine the true extent to which flame retardants may cause human health and environmental issues.

  • Halogenated flame retardants chemicals: those containing chlorine, bromine, iodine, or fluorine. This class includes flame retardants sometimes referred to as brominated or chlorinated flame retardants.
  • Organophosphorus flame retardants: those containing phosphorous bonded to carbon.

See: Artificial Flavors.

Neurotoxin[115] in many municipal water supplies, as well as frequently in toothpaste and mouthwash. Exposure to fluoride may impact IQ.[116],[117]

Polyurethane foam and synthetic latex foam are the most common types. Both are problematic for emitting volatile organic compounds (VOCs),[118],[119],[120] some of which can irritate eyes, nose and throat, cause headaches, and some are linked to cancer. Foam is also usually treated with toxic flame retardants (see: Flame Retardants). Read more.

Linked to cancer[121],[122] and short-term health impacts, including irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat,[123] and allergic skin reactions and skin rashes.[124] Formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasing preservatives can also cause the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines (see: Nitrosamines).[125] This chemical is most commonly found in personal care products and cosmetics in the form of formaldehyde-releasing preservatives. It is also found in pressed wood products like particleboard,[126] furniture, and cabinets, and personal care and salon products like shampoos, liquid baby soaps, nail polish, nail hardener, nail glue, eyelash glue, and chemical hair straighteners.[127]

Example formaldehyde-releasing preservatives not permitted:

  • Quaternium-15
  • DMDM hydantoin
  • Imidazolidinyl urea
  • Diazolidinyl urea
  • Sodium hydroxymethylglycinate
  • 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3 diol
Read more.

Used as an umbrella term for dozens of different ingredients that make up a particular scent. Many common fragrance ingredients, like phthalates (see: Phthalates) and synthetic musks (see: Synthetic Musks), are toxic to human health. Neither synthetic nor natural fragrances pass or fail categorically. Instead, we rely on our screening process to make that determination for each individual fragrance ingredient. Read more.

See: Dioxins and Furans.

See: Synthetic Musks.

Genetically modified organisms are organisms that have been genetically engineered. This means the organism’s DNA has been manipulated through artificial human intervention in the laboratory (as opposed to intervention through cross-breeding). GMOs usually contain traces of GMO DNA in the material’s final form that can be detected using laboratory testing. There is simply not enough known about how GMOs interact with human health and the entire ecosystem.[128] As such, we exercise the precautionary principle and don’t permit them in certified products.

Commercially made grapefruit seed extract often includes synthetic antimicrobials or preservatives.[129] It can be adulterated with harmful chemicals like benzalkonium chloride and triclosan.[130] Made Safe permits grapeseed extract when 100 percent naturally derived and unadulterated; synthetic forms are the only forms of this ingredient that are not permitted.

Many are potent neurotoxicants and have been linked to hormone disruption. Found in some toys, cosmetics, children’s face paints, and gear such as car seats. For more information on heavy metals, see each metal’s specific entry within this document.

Example heavy metals not permitted:

  • Aluminum
  • Cadmium
  • Lead
  • Mercury
  • Nickel

Common sunscreen ingredient (see: Sunscreen Chemicals) and a potential endocrine disruptor.[131],[132] Because scientists don’t know enough about this environmentally persistent ingredient,[133] it is difficult to determine the full scale of potential environmental and human health impacts.[134] Because of this lack of comprehensive data and some evidence of endocrine disruption, Made Safe exercises the precautionary principle, avoiding the use of this ingredient.

Found in skin-lightening creams and is linked to cancer,[135] organ toxicity,[136] and skin irritation.[137] Hydroquinone is a potential endocrine disruptor.[138]

Found in cleaning products, shampoo, conditioner, body wash and other common personal care and household products. These ingredients are also becoming increasingly common substitutions for triclosan in hand soaps (see: Antibacterials and Antimicrobials). Two of the most commonly used ingredients of this class are methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone. Both are known irritants, sensitizers, and causes of contact skin allergies.[139],[140] Methylchloroisothiazolinone is toxic to aquatic life.[141] Methylisothiazolinone is a potential endocrine disruptor.[142]

Potent neurotoxin linked to developmental issues,[143] and learning, language and behavioral problems.[144] Exposure to lead in pregnant women is also linked to miscarriage and low birth weight.[145] This heavy metal is found in lipstick and many other color cosmetics, as well as painted toys, furniture, children’s jewelry, and some glazed cookware like crockpots[146] (see: Heavy Metals).

Potent neurotoxicant.[147] Mercury can affect most bodily systems and can cause developmental health issues in utero and infancy.[148] Found in skin lightening creams. Mercury is a heavy metal (see: Heavy Metals).

See: Isothiazolinone Preservatives.

A soft wax made from petroleum by-products.[149] It is often used n spa services, like manicures and facials, and in personal care products like baby oil and cosmetics. Mineral oil consists mainly of hydrocarbons, which can pass the skin barrier and be absorbed.[150] In the manufacturing process, mineral oil products can also be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,[151] some of which are known or potential carcinogens.[152]

Generally, nanoparticles can be 1000 times smaller than the width of a human hair.[153] However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the size of particle which constitutes a nanoparticle.[154] The European Union defines nanomaterials as between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm),[155] but a number of organizations recommend that the definition for food ingredients be 500 nm and below.[156] Nanoparticles are used in many different products from baby formula to cosmetics, and sunscreen to packaging.

Despite nanoparticles becoming increasingly common across industries, they have not been properly assessed for human or environmental health effects, nor are they adequately regulated. As of 2017, the EPA has made some strides in regulation, requiring companies that manufacture nanoparticles to notify the EPA.[157] This is a step in the right direction, but is not comprehensive regulation. The result is numerous new and untested nanoparticle technologies hitting the market at an unprecedented pace.

Researchers don’t quite understand the impacts nanoparticles could have on human health and the environment. However, because of their infinitesimally small size, nanoparticles may be more chemically reactive and therefore more bioavailable.[158] The dramatic difference in size can also cause nanoparticles of a substance to behave differently than larger particles of the same substance.[159]

Because of the uncertainty of the impacts of nanoparticles, and until extensive scientific testing proves nanomaterials to be safe, Made Safe exercises the precautionary principle and avoid particles smaller than 200 nm. Made Safe sets the limit at 200 nm for certified products (which are all non-food items), allowing a buffer from the 100 nm limit set forth by the EU. Although it is outside of the certifying capacity of the organization, we support an increased limit to 500 nm in food items, as ingesting nanomaterials may be particularly harmful.[160]

Because of the uncertainty of the impacts of nanoparticles, and until extensive scientific testing proves nanomaterials to be safe, Made Safe avoid particles smaller than 100 nm. Made Safe sets the limit at 100 nm for certified products (which are all non-food items), which is congruent with the 100 nm limit set forth by the EU. Although it is outside of the certifying capacity of the organization, we support an increased limit to 500 nm in food items, as ingesting nanomaterials may be particularly harmful.[347]

This ingredient, also known as tar camphor, naphthene, and antimite,[161] is derived from crude oil coal tar and can be produced from burning substances (for example: tobacco smoke, car exhaust, wildfires,[162] and burning coal[163]), and is also found in certain manufacturing processes (like wood preservation, tanning, and dye production).[164] Naphthalene is used as pest control, and is a registered pesticide and insecticide.[165] Most common exposure to this chemical is through moth balls.[166] It has also been found in detergents, hairspray, charcoal lighters, and more.[167] The primary health concern associated with naphthalene is respiratory tract lesions, including possible carcinogenicity.[168] It is moderately harmful to fish, algae, and some wildlife.[169]

Found in costume jewelry, children’s face paint,[170] and cosmetics, especially eye shadows, blushes, and powders.[171] The most common health effect of nickel is an allergic reaction.[172] In fact, in both children and adults, nickel is the most common allergen.[173] Nickel is banned in cosmetics in the European Union[174] and parts of Asia.[175] The EU has also restricted how nickel is used in products that are intended to be in contact with the skin for prolonged periods of time.[176] The United States has no such ban or restrictions on this heavy metal[177] (see: Heavy Metals).

Nitrosamines are impurities that result from the combination of certain compounds mixed together in formulation.[178] The two most common nitrosamines found in cosmetic products are N-nitrosodiethanolamine and N-nitrosobis (2-hydroxypropyl)amine.[179] Nitrosamine contamination is concerning because some nitrosamines, like N-nitrosodiethanolamine, N-Nitrosodimethylamine, and N-nitrosobis (2-hydroxypropyl)amine have been found to produce cancer in some species of lab animals.[180],[181] Many means of exposure, including oral and dermal, have been associated with cancer in many species of lab animals.[182] Therefore, nitrosamine’s potential carcinogenicity in humans has been deemed very likely.[183] Standard manufacturing practices create nitrosamines in food, beverages, personal care products, cosmetics, and condoms.

The following chemicals may cause nitrosamine formation:

  • Ammonium Quaternary Compounds (see: Ammonium Quaternary Compounds)[184]
  • Cocamidopropyl betaine[185]
  • DEA compounds[186]
  • Formaldehyde and Formaldehyde-releasing preservatives (see: Formaldehyde)[187]
  • N-Phenyl-p-phenylenediamine[188]
  • Preservatives 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol[189],[190] and 5-bromo-5-nitro-1,30-dioxane[191]
  • TEA compounds[192]
  • Numerous others, as the presence of primary, second, and tertiary amines (chemical derivatives of ammonia) can generate the formation of nitrosamines[193]

This ingredient is a reproductive toxin[194] and endocrine disruptor.[195],[196],[197],[198] It acts on multiple endocrine functions.[199] The ingredient’s abundance of endocrine disruption data put it on a number of hazard lists as a high concern.[200],[201],[202],[203] This ingredient is used as a sunscreen chemical (see: Sunscreen Chemicals).

This sunscreen ingredient (see: Sunscreen Chemicals) has some evidence of endocrine disruption.[204] There is limited toxicity information available on this ingredient; however, because of its potential endocrine disrupting abilities, Made Safe exercises the precautionary principle and avoids this ingredient.

Often used as a stabilizer for another sunscreen chemical, avobenzone, which is very unstable in the presence of light (see: Avobenzone). There is limited evidence of endocrine disrupting activity.[205] Octocrylene bioaccumulates.[206] (See: Sunscreen Chemicals.)

A derivative of benzophenone[207] and a very common sunscreen ingredient (see: Sunscreen Chemicals). Oxybenzone is an endocrine disruptor, acting on multiple mechanisms of endocrine disruption.[208],[209],[210][211] The ingredient is also a contact allergen[212] and photoallergen,[213] meaning exposure to light is required to generate an allergic response. This ingredient is also called benzophenone-3, which is distinct from benzophenone (see: Benzophenone).

P-V

Preservatives that help prevent microbial growth. Parabens mimic estrogen in the body.[214] Some parabens are linked to breast cancer,[215] and reproductive and developmental harm.[216],[217],[218], Found in personal care products including deodorant, shampoo, liquid soap, lotion, and cosmetics. See more.

Example parabens not permitted:

  • Butylparaben
  • Benzylparaben
  • Ethylparaben
  • Methylparaben
  • Propylparaben

A diverse array of chemicals used in a wide range of consumer goods including cosmetics, cell phones, computers, automobiles, textiles (such as stain resistant fabrics), paints, adhesives, cookware, and more. There are currently more than 3,000 individual PFASs in the global marketplace.[219] While well-known examples such as PFOS and PFOA have largely been phased out of use, they have been replaced by PFASs with similar properties.[220] Many PFASs are persistent in the environment,[221],[222] bioaccumulate in humans and animals,[223] and elicit a range of toxic effects[224] like adverse effects on sexual function and fertility,[225] endocrine disrupting capabilities,[226] cancer,[227] developmental and reproductive toxicity,[228],[229]and more.[230] Read more about PFOA.

Similar to cyfluthrin (see: Cyfluthrin), permethrin is capable of acting as a neurotoxin.[231],[232] Exposure to permethrin has been associated with neural cell death in multiple parts of the brain, [233] and impairment of neural processing,[234] capable of causing problems with memory[235],[236]motor skills, and learning.[237] Permethrin is very toxic to wildlife, [238]particularly bees, aquatic life, and cats.[239] Permethrin is commonly found in bug repellents (see: Bug Repellent Ingredients), and treatments for lice, and is also used as a pesticide (see: Pesticides). See more.

Made Safe does not permit high-risk pesticides linked to human health or ecosystem harm as determined by our screening process. We also defer to the Pesticide Action Network’s PAN International List of Highly Hazardous Pesticides, a comprehensive list containing the chemicals that pose a variety of significant risks to shoppers.[240] In cases where there is not enough scientific information available, we exercise the precautionary principle and don’t allow that pesticide.

Some natural ingredients like essential oils can be used as pesticides. These ingredients are each individually subjected to our rigorous screening process. See more.

Examples pesticides not permitted:

  • Acetochlor
  • Atrazine
  • Chloropicrin
  • Chlorpyrifos
  • DEET (see: Bug Repellent Chemicals and also DEET)
  • Glyphosate
  • Mercury compounds (see: Mercury)
  • Metolachlor
  • Metam sodium
  • Metam potassium
  • Paraquat
  • Pendimethalin
  • Pyrethroids including Cyfluthrin and Permethrin (see: Bug Repellent Chemicals and also Pyrethroids)

See: Perfluoralkyl Substances (PFAS) and read more about PFOA here.

See: Perfluoralkyl Substances (PFAS).

A class of plasticizing chemicals[241] used to make products more pliable or to increase the longevity of fragrances.[242] Phthalates are capable of disrupting the endocrine system in multiple different ways[243],[244],[245],[246],[247] including harming the male reproductive system,[248],[249],[250] harming the female reproductive system,[251],[252],[253] and developmental toxicity.[254],[255],[256] Some phthalates are also associated with cancer.[257],[258] Found in synthetic fragrance, hairspray, nail polish, makeup, as well as in numerous soft plastic materials such as vinyl flooring, shower curtains, raincoats, and rain boots.[259]  Read more. 

Example phthalates not permitted:

  • Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP or BBP)
  • Dibutyl phthalate (DBP)
  • Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP)
  • Diethyl phthalate (DEP)
  • Diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP)
  • Diisononyl phthalate (DINP)
  • Dioctyl phthalate (DnOP)
  • Di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP)

Plastics are practically everywhere. They are used in packaging, toys, cosmetics, personal care products, kitchen utensils and storage, appliances, clothing, recreation gear, furniture, hardware, mattresses and more. Plastics are not permitted as direct ingredients in MADE SAFE personal care products or cosmetics. However, in some cases, Made Safe does allow 100 percent food-grade silicone.

There are a number of chemicals of concern in certain plastics; three primary ingredients of concern are bisphenols, phthalates, and PVC. For more information on these ingredients, see their individual entries. Many plastics are capable of leeching ingredients that can act as endocrine disruptors.[260] Read more.

See: Dioxins and Furans.

These ingredients are often used as thickeners, softeners, moisture-carrying agents, and penetration enhancers. PEG compounds are formed by condensing water and ethylene oxide.[261] PEG compounds often appear notated as PEG followed by a number (ex: PEG-40) or as PEG followed by a number and then another ingredient (ex: PEG-20 cocamine). The latter represent polymer PEG compounds—combining a PEG compound with another ingredient. The number represents the molecular weight of the ingredient.[262]

The primary concern with PEG compounds is that because they are ethoxylated, they may be contaminated with the carcinogens ethylene oxide[263] and/or 1,4-dioxane[264],[265] (see: Ethoxylated Ingredients and 1,4-Dioxane). Some PEGs enhance penetrability of the ingredient itself, or for other ingredients into the skin.[266] This means that if a product containing a PEG contains other harmful ingredients, they might be able to penetrate the skin more easily.

Example polyethylene glycol compounds not permitted:

  • PEGs: PEG followed by a number like PEG-4, PEG-6, PEG-7, PEG-8, PEG-75, PEG-100, etc.
  • PEG polymers: PEGs followed by a number and another ingredient like PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, PEG-20 lauramine, PEG-10 Dimethicone, etc.
  • Polysorbates (Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60, Polysorbate 80, etc.): Polysorbates are formed by ethoxylating sorbitan and then adding a fatty acid. The number refers to the number of repeating polyethylene glycol units that form a chain (see: Ethoxylation).

See Foam.

PVC, often called vinyl, is a type of plastic that’s widely known as the most toxic plastic for health and the environment. PVC is used extensively in #3 and #7 plastics, which are pervasive across a wide range of products (toys, car interiors, shower curtains, clothing, flooring, solvents, perfumes, packaging, etc.).  Normally, PVC is a hard plastic, so in order to make it soft, manufactures add plasticizers, which are a group of individual or chemical compounds designed to make plastic softer and more flexible. Phthalates, a group of chemicals, are some of the most commonly used plasticizers[267] (see: Phthalates).

In its production, PVC releases a number of harmful chemicals including: dioxins, phthalates, ethylene dichloride, lead, cadmium, vinyl chloride, and more.[268] (For more information on some of these ingredients, see their individual entries.) Like most plastics, PVC has the capability to leech harmful chemicals like endocrine disruptors into the water or food it’s being used to contain.[269] See more.

Many preservatives are controversial, and some are problematic by the very nature of what they do. However, most would agree that we need products to be preserved to last a reasonable length of time on the shelf and in our cabinets. For these reasons, we are very careful about the preservatives we allow in products. Many preservatives have a range of toxicity issues for humans and the environment. We evaluate each preservative individually to determine if it’s a MADE SAFE certified ingredient. See more.

Examples preservatives not permitted:

  • Formaldehyde releasers or derivatives (see: Formaldehyde)
  • Methylisothiazolinone and Methylchloroisothiazolinone (see: Isothiazolinone Preservatives)
  • Parabens (see: Parabens)

The most common chemical class of bug repellent chemicals containing over 1,000 insecticides[270] (see: Bug Repellent Ingredients) and is also used as an agricultural pesticide (see: Pesticides). Because pyrethroids can easily pass the blood-brain-barrier, they can become toxic to the central nervous system,[271] potentially causing tingling in the face and hands, among other more serious effects.[272],[273] Many pyrethroids are not easily degraded in the environment, are toxic to wildlife and vegetation,[274] and are very toxic to aquatic life.[275]

Although there is information on pyrethroids’ neurotoxic potential and toxicity to aquatic life, there is limited information on carcinogenicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive effects. However, given pyrethroids’ neurotoxicity, Made Safe exercises the precautionary principle, avoiding this class of chemicals. See more.

Most commonly used in hair dyes, but also in hair bleaching, shampoos, and acne treatments. Resorcinol is associated with endocrine disruption.[355],[356] This ingredient has been classified as harmful and very harmful to aquatic life,[357,[358],[359] as well as harmful to terrestrial life.[360]

Natural vitamin A is an essential nutrient, but retinol and its derivatives are synthetic versions. Retinyl palmitate and retinoic acid, two common derivatives, have been associated with photocarcinogenicity, or the potential to cause cancer when exposed to sunlight.[276] Retinoic acid is also a developmental toxin[277] that is persistent in the environment.[278] Other synthetic vitamin A ingredients include retinyl acetate and retinyl linoleate. Using too much vitamin A in skin products has the potential to cause an excess of vitamin A in the body,[279] which can lead to liver damage, hair loss, birth defects, and more. These ingredients are common in moisturizer, anti-aging cream, anti-acne cream, and foundation.

Siloxanes are a chemical group that form the backbone and building blocks of silicones. Silanes are modified silicon compounds. These ingredients are often used as emulsifiers and can be found in conditioners, deodorants, and other personal care products.

Many siloxanes are persistent in the environment,[280],[281],[282] and some are being evaluated by the European Union to potentially be classified as Persistent-Bioaccumulative-Toxic. Cyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is toxic to aquatic life.[283] D4 is also an endocrine disruptor.[284],[285],[286] and possible reproductive toxin.[287] Other siloxanes have some evidence of endocrine disrupting capabilities.[288]

There are some data gaps with these ingredients,[289] but existing information makes them chemicals of concern. Siloxanes are often found on many restricted lists.[290],[291],[292]

Example siloxanes and silanes not permitted:

  • Cyclotetrasiloxane (D4)
  • Cyclopentasiloxane (D5)
  • Cyclohexasiloxane (D6)
  • Cyclomethicone: (mixture of D4, D5 and D6)
  • Dimethicone
  • Dimethicone copolyol
  • Polydimethylsiloxane

In cosmetics, this ingredient appears as “styrene/acrylates copolymer” on labels. It is primarily used in plastics (see: Plastics), rubber, and styrofoam. A number of forms of styrene have been associated with varying endocrine disrupting capabilities with varying amounts of evidence.[348], [349] Evidence from multiple government agencies suggests that some forms may cause cancer.[350],[351],[352],[353] Styrene is also highly toxic to aquatic life.[354]

Found in sunscreens, personal care products, hairsprays, cosmetics like SPF foundation, and fragrance (see: Fragrance). Example sunscreen ingredients not permitted. See their individual entries for more information:

  • Avobenzone
  • Benzophenone
  • Homosalate
  • Octinoxate
  • Octisalate (aka Octyl salicylate)
  • Octocrylene
  • Oxybenzone (aka Benzophenone-3)
Read more.

Surfactants are ingredients that help things suds or lather. Surfactants are “surface active agents,” which means one end of the molecule is attracted to fat and the other end is attracted to water. Because water and oil usually like to remain separate in solution, surfactants can help hold water and oil together in solution. Because of their unique chemical properties, surfactants are used in a variety of products including laundry detergents, spermicide, car washes, industrial and home cleaners, engine decreases, dish soap, and the majority of personal care products like body wash, shampoo, conditioner, bubble bath, and more.

Their unique chemical properties also make these ingredients problematic for aquatic life. The adverse effects on aquatic organisms are well documented.[293],[294],[295],[296] Because of environmental harm, the EU requires all detergents, which are composed primarily of surfactants, on the market be fully biodegradable.[297] The EU also bans some surfactants based on their biodegradability.[298] The United States has no such regulations.

There are four types of surfactants: anionic (one negatively charged end), cationic (one positively charged end) (see: Quaternary Compounds), nonionic (no charge), and amphoteric (one positive and one negative end). Anionic is the class most commonly used in personal care products.

Example surfactants not permitted:

  • Alkyl benzene sulfonates (ABS)
  • Ammonium Laureth Sulfate (ALES)
  • Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS)
  • Cocoyl Sarcosine
  • Lauryl Sarcosine
  • Linear alkyl benzene sulfonates
  • Linear alkyl sodium sulfonates
  • PFAS (see: Perfluoralkyl substances)
  • Potassium Coco Hydrolyzed Collagen
  • Sodium Coco Sulfate (SCS)
  • Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES)
  • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)
  • Sodium Methyl Cocoyl Taurate
  • TEA (Triethanolamine) Laureth Sulfate
  • TEA (Triethanolamine) Lauryl Sulfate
  • Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate
  • Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate

Sometimes referred to as GMO 2.0. There is still debate on the exact definition of synthetic biology.[299] Made Safe believes that synthetic biology sits at the intersection of engineering, biotechnology, chemistry, and genetics. Synthetic biology, often called synbio, could hold great promise for the future and it could also be dangerous. Without the proper research to show long-term effects, synbio ingredients’ true impact on the ecosystem and humans is presently unknown.[300]

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) are organisms that have been genetically engineered (see: Genetically Modified Organisms). This means the organism’s DNA has been manipulated through artificial human intervention in the laboratory (as opposed to intervention through cross-breeding). GMOs usually contain traces of GMO DNA in the material’s final form that can be detected using laboratory testing. However, in synthetic biology, a material can be manipulated genetically in manufacturing, but the final product will not contain GMO DNA.

It’s helpful to think of GMO as cutting and pasting DNA, then copying it. With some synthetic biology techniques, scientists do not simply cut and paste; instead the genetic material is essentially “written” from scratch. In other techniques, scientists manipulate an organism to produce a substance that it would not produce under normal conditions.[301] There are also other techniques used in synthetic biology.[302]

Because of how little this technology has been studied, Made Safe is exercising the precautionary principle and choosing to avoid synthetic biology ingredients whenever possible. Read more.

Galaxolide and tonalide are potential hormone disruptors[303] shown to build up in our bodies.[304] They’ve been detected in blood[305] and breast milk.[306] They are common ingredients in detergents, cleaning products, and fragrance formulations (see: Fragrance). See more.

Talc that is pure and uncontaminated is all right for general use. However, talc can be contaminated with asbestos because both minerals reside in close proximity in the earth.[307] Contamination of talc happens when it’s mined, and contaminated talc is linked to cancer.[308] Because of potential contamination, Made Safe exercises the precautionary principle and does not allow the use of talc in certified products. Talc is found in baby powder, foot powder, and cosmetics.

This whitening agent is commonly used in paint, sunscreen, and as food colorant. This ingredient is generally safe and permitted by Made Safe when it is not nanoparticle size (see: Nanoparticles). Read more.

A petrochemical solvent linked to short-term problems like headaches, confusion, fatigue,[309] and eye, nose and throat irritation;[310]and long-term health impacts like kidney and liver damage,[311]reproductive harm,[312],[313] and developmental toxicity.[314] Found in nail polish, nail treatments, hair dyes, adhesives, and paint thinners.

These ingredients are designed to kill germs and are frequently used in products that claim to be “antimicrobial” or “antibacterial,” like antibacterial soaps, detergents, house-cleaners, hand sanitizers and other similar products (see: Antibacterials & Antimicrobials).

Triclosan and triclocarban are known endocrine-disrupting chemicals.[315],[316],[317],[318],[319],[320],[321],[322] These ingredients are also toxic to the aquatic environment.[323],[324],[325] The FDA banned the use of triclosan, a registered pesticide,[326] and triclocarban in hand soaps effective 2017, stating that soap works equally well for reducing the spread of germs without the toxic side-effects.[327] However, the ingredients will still be allowed for use in other personal care products like toothpaste, body wash, and hand sanitizer.[328] Read more.

Used commonly as a synthetic emulsifier. Found in a variety of personal care products including moisturizers, cosmetics, conditioners, and sunscreen. This ingredient has been associated with potential endocrine disruption,[329] and skin sensitization.[330] TEA is also an asthma trigger.[331]

See: Polyvinyl Chloride.

back to top 


Exceptions

Exceptions to the Rules, Trace Amounts & Governmental Allowances

There are certain products where the use case is imperative to consider. That is why we look at in what capacity a shopper interacts with and uses a product, per the manufacturer’s guidelines, so that we can assess the issues unique to each and every product. Unfortunately there are times where we find that manufacturing processes and ingredient practices haven’t caught up with Made Safe’s stringent standards and where there is no safer available substitution for the function of a certain ingredient. For example, if there is a governmental mandate, rule or guideline, we may have to defer to that allowance and make a “use case exception.” This is extremely rare, and we never make use case exceptions for chemicals that fall into the categories on our Primary Toxicants list:

  • Behavioral Toxins
  • Reproductive Toxins
  • High Risk Pesticides
  • Developmental Toxins
  • Heavy Metals
  • Toxic solvents
  • Neurological Toxins
  • Carcinogens
  • Harmful VOCs

We constantly search for alternatives and are creating awareness around the need for green chemistry for safe substitutions at the brand, manufacturer, and raw supplier level. We also are interested in seeing stricter regulations. Until then, our goal is to move manufacturers and suppliers to commit to providing better, cleaner, and safer ingredient alternatives.

If you are a brand interested in working with us start here.

If you want to keep up-to-date on all things Made Safe, sign up for our newsletter here.

Follow us on Facebook | Instagram | Twitter | Pinterest

back to top 


References

[1] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). (2016). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: 1,4-dioxane. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed July 10, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/14-dioxane

[2] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (2013). Toxicological review of 1,4-dixoane. Washington, DC. Retrieved from https://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/iris/iris_documents/documents/toxreviews/0326tr.pdf

[3] National Toxicology Program, (NTP). (2016). Fourteenth report on carcinogens. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html#toc1

[4] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2008). Toxicological profile for aluminum. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp22.pdf

[5] French Agency in Charge of Cosmetic Products, (AFSSAPS). (2011). Risk assessment related to the use of aluminum in cosmetic products. Retrieved from http://www.ansm.sante.fr/var/ansm_site/storage/original/application/424d34a9741c36907c95baa1ac838183.pdf

[6] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2014). Opinion on the safety of aluminum in cosmetic products. European Union: Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_153.pdf

[7] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2004). Toxicological profile for ammonia. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp126.pdf

[8] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2004). Toxicological profile for ammonia. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp126.pdf

[9] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2004). Toxicological profile for ammonia. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp126.pdf

[10] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2004). Toxicological profile for ammonia. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp126.pdf

[11] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2004). Toxicological profile for ammonia. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp126.pdf

[12] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2004). Toxicological profile for ammonia. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp126.pdf

[13] Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics. (2012). Exposure code lookup. Accessed Sept 23, 2017. Retrieved from http://www.aoecdata.org/expcodelookup.aspx

[14] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2004). Toxicological profile for ammonia. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp126.pdf

[15] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (2013). Aquatic life ambient water quality criteria for ammonia – freshwater (2013) (2013). Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-08/documents/fact_sheet_aquatic-life-ambient-water-quality-criteria-for-ammonia-freshwater-2013.pdf

[16] Melin, V. E., Potineni, H., Hunt, P., Griswold, J., Siems, B., Werre, S. R., & Hrubec, T. C. (2014). Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. Reproductive Toxicology, 50, 163-170. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.07.071

[17] Melin, V. E., Melin, T. E., Dessify, B. J., Nguyen, C. T., Shea, C. S., & Hrubec, T. C. (2016). Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes. Reproductive Toxicology, 59, 159-166. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.10.006

[18] Melin, V. E., Melin, T. E., Dessify, B. J., Nguyen, C. T., Shea, C. S., & Hrubec, T. C. (2016). Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes. Reproductive Toxicology, 59, 159-166. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.10.006

[19] Melin, V. E., Melin, T. E., Dessify, B. J., Nguyen, C. T., Shea, C. S., & Hrubec, T. C. (2016). Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes. Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), 59, 159-166. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.10.006

[20] Becker, L. C., Bergfeld, W. F., Belsito, D. V., Klaassen, C. D., Hill, R., Leibler, D., … & Andersen, F. A. (2010). Final report of the amended safety assessment of quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics. International journal of toxicology, 29(3 suppl), 98S-114S.

[21] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[22] Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Food dyes: A rainbow of risks. Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[23] McCann, D., Barrett, A., Cooper, A., Crumpler, D., Dalen, L., Grimshaw, K., . . . Stevenson, J. (2007). Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: A randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet, 370(9598), 1560-1567. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61306-3

[24] Artificial food colouring and hyperactivity symptoms in children. (2009). Prescrire International, 18(103), 215. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19882794

[25] Schab, D. W., & Trinh, N. T. (2004). Do artificial food colors promote hyperactivity in children with hyperactive syndromes? A meta-analysis of double-blind placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP, 25(6), 423-434. doi:10.1097/00004703-200412000-00007

[26] Bateman, B., Warner, J. O., Hutchinson, E., Dean, T., Rowlandson, P., Gant, C., . . . Stevenson, J. (2004). The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89(6), 506-511. doi:10.1136/adc.2003.031435

[27] Ministers agree food colour ban: Ministers have agreed that six artificial food colourings should be phased out after research found a link with hyperactivity in children. (2008, Nov 12,). BBC. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7725316.stm

[28] Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Food dyes: A rainbow of risks. Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[29] Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Food dyes: A rainbow of risks. Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[30] Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Food dyes: A rainbow of risks. Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[31] Lucová, M., Hojerová, J., Pažoureková, S., & Klimová, Z. (2013). Absorption of triphenylmethane dyes brilliant blue and patent blue through intact skin, shaven skin and lingual mucosa from daily life products. Food and Chemical Toxicology: An International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 52, 19-27. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2012.10.027

[32] Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Food dyes: A rainbow of risks. Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[33] Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Food dyes: A rainbow of risks. Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/ttachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[34] Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Food dyes: A rainbow of risks. Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[35] Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2010). Food dyes: A rainbow of risks. Retrieved from https://cspinet.org/sites/default/files/attachment/food-dyes-rainbow-of-risks.pdf

[36] Hallagan, J. B., & Hall, R. L. (2009). Under the conditions of intended use – new developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(2), 267-278. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.011

[37] Andrews, D. (2018). Synthetic ingredients in natural flavors and natural flavors in artificial flavors. Retrieved from http://www.ewg.org/foodscores/content/natural-vs-artificial-flavors#.WmJ7ADfat_B

[38] Hallagan, J. B., & Hall, R. L. (2009). Under the conditions of intended use – new developments in the FEMA GRAS program and the safety assessment of flavor ingredients. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(2), 267-278. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2008.11.011

[39] Gagné, F. (2014). Chapter 6 – oxidative stress. In F. Gagné (Ed.), Biochemical ecotoxicology (pp. 103-115). Oxford: Academic Press. doi://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-411604-7.00006-4

[40] Damiani, E., Astolfi, P., Giesinger, J., Ehlis, T., Herzog, B., Greci, L., & Baschong, W. (2010). Assessment of the photo-degradation of UV-filters and radical-induced peroxidation in cosmetic sunscreen formulations. Free Radical Research, 44(3), 304-312. doi:10.3109/10715760903486065

[41] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2018). Search the TEDX list: benzaldehyde. Accessed July 13, 2017. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[42] TOXNET: Toxicology Data Network. (2016). Benzaldehyde. National Institutes of Health U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved from https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+388

[43] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: benzophenone. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[44] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2012). Chemicals Considered or Listed Under Proposition 65: Benzophenone. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Jan 26, 2018. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/benzophenone

[45] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: benzophenone. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[46] National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan. (2013). GHS classification results. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/english/ghs/all_fy_e.html

[47] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (n.d.). Search engine for the results of domestic substances categorization: benzophenone. Government of Canada. Accessed Jan 26, 2018. Retrieved from https://pollution-waste.canada.ca/substances-search/Substance?lang=en

[48] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: benzophenone. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[49] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2009). Evidence on the developmental and reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A. California Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/bisphenol-bpa

[50] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: 80-05-7 bisphenol A. Accessed September 25, 2017. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[51] Vinas, R., & Watson, C. S. (2013). Bisphenol S disrupts estradiol-induced nongenomic signaling in a rat pituitary cell line: Effects on cell functions. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(3), 352-358. doi:10.1289/ehp.1205826

[52] Rochester, J. R., & Bolden, A. L. (2015). Bisphenol S and F: A systematic review and comparison of the hormonal activity of bisphenol A substitutes. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(7), 643-650. doi:10.1289/ehp.1408989

[53] Mesnage, R., Phedonos, A., Arno, M., Balu, S., Corton, J. C., & Antoniou, M. N. (2017). Transcriptome profiling reveals bisphenol A alternatives activate estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cells. Toxicological Sciences, doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfx101

[54] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (n.d.). Search engine for the results of domestic substances list categorization: butylated hydroxytoluene. Government of Canada. Accessed Jun 26, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=D031CB30-1

[55] Chemsec: The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: butylated hydroxyanisole. Accessed Jun 26, 2017. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[56] Chemsec: The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: butylated hydroxyanisole. Accessed Jun 26, 2017. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[57] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (1990). Butylated hydroxyanisole. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Jun 26, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/chemicals/butylated-hydroxyanisole

[58] National Toxicology Program, (NTP). (2016). Report on carcinogens, fourteenth edition: Butylated hydroxyanisole. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html#toc1

[59] International Agency for Research on Cancer, (IARC). (1986). IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans: Some naturally occurring and synthetic food components, furocoumarins and ultraviolet radiation. (No. 40). Lyon, France: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol1-42/mono40.pdf

[60] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (1996). Evidence on development and reproductive toxicity of cadmium. California Environmental Protection Agency. Available from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/cadmium

[61] Occupational Safety and Health Administration, (OSHA). (1992). Occupational exposure to cadmium: Section V. health effects. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=PREAMBLES&p_id=819

[62] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (1996). Evidence on development and reproductive toxicity of cadmium. California Environmental Protection Agency. Available from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/cadmium

[63] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (1996). Evidence on development and reproductive toxicity of cadmium. California Environmental Protection Agency. Available from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/cadmium

[64] International Agency for Research on Cancer, (IARC). (2012). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Cadmium and cadmium compounds. (Vol. 100F). World Health Organization. Available from http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100C/index.php

[65] National Toxicology Program, (NTP). (2016). Report on carcinogens, fourteenth edition: Cadmium and cadmium compounds. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html#toc1

[66] National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan. (2013). GHS classification results. Accessed Nov 20, 2017. Retrieved from http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/english/ghs/all_fy_e.html

[67] National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan. (2013). GHS classification results. Accessed Nov 20, 2017. Retrieved from http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/english/ghs/all_fy_e.html

[68] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2016). Dioxins and their effects on human health. Accessed Jan 8, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs225/en/

[69] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: Chloroxylenol. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[70] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (1987). Soots, tars, and mineral oils (untreated and mildly treated oils and used engine oils). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Jun 27, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/chemicals/soots-tars-and-mineral-oils-untreated-and-mildly-treated-oils-and-used-engine-oils

[71] National Toxicology Program, (NTP). (2016). Report on carcinogens, fourteenth edition: Coal tars and coal-tar pitches. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html

[72] International Agency for Research on Cancer, (IARC). (2012). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Coal tar pitch. (Vol. 100F). World Health Organization. Available from http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100F/index.php

[73] Beyond Pesticides. (n.d.). Lambda-cyhalothrin. Accessed Jul 30, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/resources/pesticide-gateway?pesticideid=42

[74] Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. Adverse effects
beta-cyfluthrin CAS no. 68359-37-5. Accessed Jul 30, 2017. Retrieved from http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/pesticides/epage.beta.cyfluthrin.effct.htm

[75] Beyond Pesticides. (n.d.). Lambda-cyhalothrin. Accessed Jul 30, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/resources/pesticide-gateway?pesticideid=42

[76] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: Cyfluthrin. Accessed Jan 27, 2018. Retrieved from https://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[77] Beyond Pesticides. (n.d.) Lambda-cyhalothrin. Accessed Jul 30, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/resources/pesticide-gateway?pesticideid=42

[78] Beyond Pesticides. (n.d.). Lambda-cyhalothrin. Accessed Jul 30, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/resources/pesticide-gateway?pesticideid=42

[79] Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project. Adverse effects
beta-cyfluthrin CAS no. 68359-37-5. Accessed Jul 30, 2017. Retrieved from http://fluoridealert.org/wp-content/pesticides/epage.beta.cyfluthrin.effct.htm

[80] Soni, I., Syed, F., Bhatnagar, P., & Mathur, R. (2010). Perinatal toxicity of cyfluthrin in mice: Developmental and behavioral effects. Human & Experimental Toxicology, 30(8), 1096-1105. doi:10.1177/0960327110391386

[81] Bhushan, B., Saxena, P. N., & Saxena, N. (2013). Biochemical and histological changes in rat liver caused by cypermethrin and beta-cyfluthrin. Arhiv Za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju, 64(1), 57. doi:10.2478/10004-1254-64-2013-2184

[82] Chemical Hazard and Alternatives Toolbox. (n.d.). Baythroid. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.chemhat.org/en/chemical/68359-37-5/baythroid

[83] Abou-Donia, M. B., Wilmarth, K. R., Jensen, K. F., Oehme, F. W., & Kurt, T. L. (1996). Neurotoxicity resulting from coexposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET, and permethrin: Implications of gulf war chemical exposures. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 48(1), 35-56. doi:10.1080/009841096161456

[84] Beyond Pesticides & National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides. (2002). DEET. 22(2) Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/deet.pdf

[85] Beyond Pesticides & National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides. (2002). DEET. 22(2) Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/deet.pdf

[86] Chen, T., Burczynski, F. J., Miller, D. W., & Gu, X. (2010). Percutaneous permeation comparison of repellents picaridin and DEET in concurrent use with sunscreen oxybenzone from commercially available preparations. Die Pharmazie, 65(11), 835. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21155391

[87] Beyond Pesticides & National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides. (2002). DEET. 22(2) Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/deet.pdf

[88] Corbel, V., Stankiewicz, M., Pennetier, C., Fournier, D., Stojan, J., Girard, E., . . . Lapie, B. (2009). Evidence for inhibition of cholinesterases in insect and mammalian nervous systems by the insect repellent DEET. BMC Biology, 7(1), 47. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-47

[89] Abdel-Rahman, A., Shetty, A. K., & Abou-Donia, M. B. (2001). Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum. Experimental Neurology, 172(1), 153-171. doi:10.1006/exnr.2001.7807

[90] Manikkam, M., Tracey, R., Guerrero-Bosagna, C., & Skinner, M. K. (2012). Pesticide and insect repellent mixture (permethrin and DEET) induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and sperm epimutations. Reproductive Toxicology (Elmsford, N.Y.), 34(4), 708-719. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2012.08.010

[91] Beyond Pesticides & National Coalition Against the Misuse of Pesticides. (2002). DEET. 22(2) Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/deet.pdf

[92] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (n.d.) Dioxins and furans. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/wastemin/web/pdf/dioxfura.pdf

[93] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (n.d.) Dioxins and furans. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/wastemin/web/pdf/dioxfura.pdf

[94] Health Canada. (2005). Dioxins and furans. (2005). Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/hc-sc/migration/hc-sc/hl-vs/alt_formats/pacrb-dgapcr/pdf/iyh-vsv/environ/dioxin-eng.pdf

[95] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (n.d.) Dioxins and furans. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/wastemin/web/pdf/dioxfura.pdf

[96] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2016). Dioxins and their effects on health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dioxins-and-their-effects-on-human-health

[97] International Agency for Research on Cancer, (IARC). (2012). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: Ethylene oxide. (Vol. 100F). World Health Organization. Available from http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100F/index.php

[98] Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. (n.d.) Ethoxylated ingredients. Accessed Jul 15, 2017. Retrieved from http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/ethoxylated-ingredients/

[99] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2010). Toxicological profile for ethylene glycol. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?id=86&tid=21

[100] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2010). Toxicological profile for ethylene glycol. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?id=86&tid=21

[101] Patisaul, H. B., Roberts, S. C., Mabrey, N., McCaffrey, K. A., Gear, R. B., Braun, J., . . . Stapleton, H. M. (2013). Accumulation and endocrine disrupting effects of the flame retardant mixture Firemaster® 550 in rats: An exploratory assessment. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 27(2), 124-136. doi:10.1002/jbt.21439

[102] Springer, C., Dere, E., Hall, S. J., McDonnell, E. V., Roberts, S. C., Butt, C. M., . . . Boekelheide, K. (2012). Rodent thyroid, liver, and fetal testis toxicity of the monoester metabolite of bis-, a novel brominated flame retardant present in indoor dust. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(12), 1711.

[103] Eskenazi, B., Chevrier, J., Rauch, S. A., Kogut, K., Harley, K. G., Johnson, C., . . . Bradman, A. (2013). In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures and neurodevelopment in the CHAMACOS study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(2), 257-262. doi:10.1289/ehp.1205597

[104] Herbstman, J. B., Sjödin, A., Kurzon, M., Lederman, S. A., Jones, R. A., Rauh, V., . . . Perera, F. (2010). Prenatal exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(5), 712-719. doi:10.1289/ehp.090134

[105] Roze, E., Meijer, L., Bakker, A., Van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A, Sauer, P. J., & Bos, A. F. (2009). Prenatal exposure to organohalogens, including brominated flame retardants, influences motor, cognitive, and behavioral performance at school age. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(12), 1953-1958. doi:10.1289/ehp.0901015

[106] Patisaul, H. B., Roberts, S. C., Mabrey, N., McCaffrey, K. A., Gear, R. B., Braun, J., . . . Stapleton, H. M. (2013). Accumulation and endocrine disrupting effects of the flame retardant mixture Firemaster® 550 in rats: An exploratory assessment. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 27(2), 124-136. doi:10.1002/jbt.21439

[107] Springer, C., Dere, E., Hall, S. J., McDonnell, E. V., Roberts, S. C., Butt, C. M., . . . Boekelheide, K. (2012). Rodent thyroid, liver, and fetal testis toxicity of the monoester metabolite of bis-, a novel brominated flame retardant present in indoor dust. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(12), 1711.

[108] Meeker, J. D., Johnson, P. I., Camann, D., & Hauser, R. (2009). Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in house dust are related to hormone levels in men. Science of the Total Environment, 407(10), 3425-3429. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.01.030

[109] Springer, C., Dere, E., Hall, S. J., McDonnell, E. V., Roberts, S. C., Butt, C. M., . . . Boekelheide, K. (2012). Rodent thyroid, liver, and fetal testis toxicity of the monoester metabolite of bis-, a novel brominated flame retardant present in indoor dust. Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(12), 1711.

[110] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2011). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Jul 9, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/tris13-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate-tdcpp

[111] The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. (2008). All POPs listed in the Stockholm convention. Retrieved from http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/ThePOPs/AllPOPs/tabid/2509/Default.aspx

[112] Green Science Policy Institute. (2013). Flame retardants. Retrieved from http://greensciencepolicy.org/topics/flame-retardants/

[113] Green Science Policy Institute. (2013). Why we need fire-safe furniture without flame retardants. Retrieved from http://greensciencepolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/GSP-FR-factsheet-June-2013.pdf

[114] Green Science Policy Institute. (2013). Flame retardants. Retrieved from http://greensciencepolicy.org/topics/flame-retardants/

[115] Grandjean, P., & Landrigan, P. (2014). Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. England: Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70278-3

[116] Connett, M., & Blank, T. (2016). Fluoride & IQ: The 51 studies. Retrieved from http://fluoridealert.org/studies/brain01/

[117] Grandjean, P., & Landrigan, P. (2014). Neurobehavioral effects of developmental toxicity. England: Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70278-3

[118] Salthammer, T., Fuhrmann, F., & Uhde, E. (2003). Flame retardants in the indoor environment – part II: Release of VOCs (triethylphosphate and halogenated degradation products) from polyurethane. Indoor Air, 13(1), 49-52. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0668.2003.01150.x/abstract

[119] Boor, B. E., Järnström, H., Novoselac, A., & Xu, Y. (2014). Infant exposure to emissions of volatile organic compounds from crib mattresses. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(6), 3541. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24548111

[120] Kim, K., Pandey, S. K., Kim, Y., Sohn, J. R., & Oh, J. (2014). Emissions of amides (N,N-dimethylformamide and formamide) and other obnoxious volatile organic compounds from different mattress textile products. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 11, 350-356. doi://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econenv.2014.07.008

[121] International Agency of Research on Cancer, (IARC). (2012). Formaldehyde.100F, 401-436. Retrieved from http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol100F/mono100F-29.pdf

[122] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2016). Formaldehyde (gas). Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/formaldehyde-gas

[123] National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Formaldehyde and cancer risk. National Institutes of Science. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/substances/formaldehyde/formaldehyde-fact-sheet

[124] Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2014). Toxic substances portal – formaldehyde. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mmg/mmg.asp?id=216&tid=39

[125] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[126] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (2000). Formaldehyde. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/formaldehyde.pdf

[127] Kaden, D. A., Mandin, C., Nielsen, G. D., & Wolkoff, P. (2010). WHO guidelines of indoor air quality: Selected pollutants: Formaldehyde. World Health Organization. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK138711/

[128] Hilbeck, A., Binimelis, R., Defarge, N., Steinbrecher, R., Székács, A., Wickson, F., . . . Wynne, B. (2015). No scientific consensus on GMO safety. Environmental Sciences Europe, 27(4), 1-6. 10.1186/s12302-014-0034-1 Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12302-014-0034-1

[129] Takeoka, G., Dao, L., Wong, R. Y., Lundin, R., & Mahoney, N. (2001). Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49(7), 3316-3320. doi:10.1021/jf010222w

[130] Avula, B., Dentali, S., & Khan, I. A. (2007). Simultaneous identification and quantification by liquid chromatography of benzethonium chloride, methyl paraben and triclosan in commercial products labeled as grapefruit seed extract. Pharmazie, 62(8), 593-596. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17867553?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_SingleItemSupl.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed

[131] Krause, M., Klit, A., Blomberg Jensen, M., Søeborg, T., Frederiksen, H., Schlumpf, M., Lichtensteiger, W., skakkebaek, N.E., & Drzewiecki, K. T. (2012). Sunscreens: Are they beneficial for health? an overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV‐filters. International Journal of Andrology, 35(3), 424-436. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01280.x

[132] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: homosalate. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[133] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (n.d.). Search engine for the results of domestic substances categorization: homosalate. Government of Canada. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from https://pollution-waste.canada.ca/substances-search/Substance?lang=en

[134] Krause, M., Klit, A., Blomberg Jensen, M., Søeborg, T., Frederiksen, H., Schlumpf, M., Lichtensteiger, W., skakkebaek, N.E., & Drzewiecki, K. T. (2012). Sunscreens: Are they beneficial for health? an overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV‐filters. International Journal of Andrology, 35(3), 424-436. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01280.x

[135] Chemical Hazard and Alternatives Toolbox. (n.d.). Hydroquinone. Accessed Jan 8, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.chemhat.org/en/chemical/123-31-9/hydroquinone

[136] National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan. (2012). GHS classification results. Accessed Jan8, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/english/ghs/all_fy_e.html

[137] National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan. (2012). GHS classification results. Accessed Jan 8, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/english/ghs/all_fy_e.html

[138] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2018). Search the TEDX list: Hydroquinone. Accessed Jan 8, 2018. Retrieved from https://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[139] de Groot, A. C., & Herxheimer, A. (1989). Isothiazolinone preservative: Cause of a continuing epidemic of cosmetic dermatitis. Lancet, 11(1) Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2563466

[140] Lundov, M. D., Krongaard, T., Menné, T. L., & Johansen, J. D. (2011). Methylisothiazolinone contact allergy: A review. The British Journal of Dermatology, 165(6), 1178. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2011.10523.x

[141] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (1998). R.E.D. facts: Methylisothiazolinone. Retrieved from https://archive.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/web/pdf/3092fact.pdf

[142] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2018). Search the TEDX list: Methylisothiazolinone. Accessed Jan 17, 2018. Retrieved from https://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[143] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2017). Lead poisoning and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs379/en/

[144] National Institute of Environmental Health Services. (2013). Lead and your health. Retrieved from https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/materials/lead_and_your_health_508.pdf

[145] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2017). Lead poisoning and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs379/en/

[146] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2017). Lead poisoning and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs379/en/

[147] Grandjean, P., & Landrigan, P. (2014). Neurobehavioral effects of developmental toxicity. England: Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70278-3

[148] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2017). Mercury and health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs361/en/  

[149] Environmental Working Group, (EWG). (2018). Mineral oil. EWG’s Skin Deep Cosmetics Database. Accessed Jan 9, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/703977/MINERAL_OIL/#.WlUKujfauDQ

[150] Concin, N., Hofstetter, G., Plattner, B., Tomovski, C., Fiselier, K., Gerritzen, K., . . . Grob, K. (2011). Evidence for cosmetics as a source of mineral oil contamination in women. Journal of Women’s Health, 20(11), 1713-1719. doi:10.1089/jwh.2011.2829

[151] Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, (CFSC). (n.d.). Petrolatum, petroleum jelly. Accessed Jan 9, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/petrolatum/

[152] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (1995). Public health statement polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp69-c1-b.pdf

[153] Friends of the Earth. (n.d.). Nanotechnology. Accessed Jan 11, 2018. Retrieved from https://foe.org/projects/nanotechnology/

[154] Lovestam, G., Rauscher, H., Roebben, G., Kluttgen, B. S., Gibson, N., Putaud, J., & Stamm, H. (2010). Considerations on a definition of nanomaterial for regulatory purposes. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/sites/jrcsh/files/jrc_reference_report_201007_nanomaterials.pdf

[155] European Commission. (2017). Definition of a nanomaterial. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/nanotech/faq/definition_en.htm

[156] As You Sow. (n.d). Policy for Nanomaterials in Food and Food Packaging. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://archive.asyousow.org/our-work/environmental-health/nanomaterials/policy-for-nanomaterials-in-food-and-food-packaging/

[157] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (2017). Control of nanoscale materials under the toxic substances control act. Accessed Jan 11, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/reviewing-new-chemicals-under-toxic-substances-control-act-tsca/control-nanoscale-materials-under#regs

[158] Friends of the Earth. (2016). Nanoparticles in baby formula: Tiny new ingredients are a big concern. Retrieved from https://1bps6437gg8c169i0y1drtgz-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/wpallimport/files/archive/FOE_NanoBabyFormulaReport_13.pdf

[159] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (2017). Control of nanoscale materials under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Accessed Jan 11, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/reviewing-new-chemicals-under-toxic-substances-control-act-tsca/control-nanoscale-materials-under

[160] As You Sow. (n.d). Policy for Nanomaterials in Food and Food Packaging. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://archive.asyousow.org/our-work/environmental-health/nanomaterials/policy-for-nanomaterials-in-food-and-food-packaging/

[161] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2010). WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Pollutants: Selected Pollutants. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/128169/e94535.pdf

[162] National Pesticide Information Center, (EPIC). Naphthalene General Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/naphgen.html

[163] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (2000). Naphthalene. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/naphthalene.pdf

[164] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (2000). Naphthalene. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2016-09/documents/naphthalene.pdf

[165] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (n.d.) Pesticide Product and Label System. Version 2.4.1.1. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://iaspub.epa.gov/apex/pesticides/f?p=PPLS:1

[166] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2010). WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Pollutants: Selected Pollutants. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/128169/e94535.pdf

[167] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2010). WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Pollutants: Selected Pollutants. WHO Regional Office for Europe. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/128169/e94535.pdf

[168] International Agency for Research on Cancer, (IARC). (2002). IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans: Some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene, and styrene. (Vol. 82). Lyon, France: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol82/mono82.pdf

[169] National Pesticide Information Center, (EPIC). Naphthalene General Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/naphgen.html

[170] Breast Cancer Fund, Commonweal, & Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. (2009). Pretty scary: Could Halloween face paint cause lifelong health problems? Retrieved from https://www.safecosmetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Pretty-Scary.pdf

[171] U.S. Food & Drug Administration, (FDA). (2017). FDA’s testing of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury and nickel content. Accessed Jan 17, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/PotentialContaminants/ucm452836.htm#learned

[172] Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2005). Public health statement for nickel. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=243&tid=44

[173] Zug, K. A., McGinley-Smith, D., Warshaw, E. M., Taylor, J. S., Rietschel, R. L., Maibach, H. I., . . . Sasseville, D. (2008). Contact allergy in children referred for patch testing: North American contact dermatitis group data, 2001-2004. Archives of Dermatology, 144(10), 1329-1336. doi:10.1001/archderm.144.10.1329

[174] Breast Cancer Fund, Commonweal, & Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. (2009). Pretty scary: Could Halloween face paint cause lifelong health problems? Retrieved from https://www.safecosmetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Pretty-Scary.pdf

[175] ASEAN Cosmetics Association. (2015). Annexes of the ASEAN cosmetic directive. annex II part 1 – list of substances which must not form part of the composition of cosmetic products. Retrieved from http://www.hsa.gov.sg/content/dam/HSA/HPRG/Cosmetic_Products/Annexes%20of%20the%20ASEAN%20Cosmetic%20Directive.pdf

[176] Breast Cancer Fund, Commonweal, & Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. (2009). Pretty scary: Could Halloween face paint cause lifelong health problems? Retrieved from https://www.safecosmetics.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Pretty-Scary.pdf

[177] U.S. Food & Drug Administration, (FDA). (2017). FDA’s testing of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury and nickel content. Accessed Jan 17, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/PotentialContaminants/ucm452836.htm#learned

[178] Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, (CFSC). (2018). Accessed Jan 15, 2018. Nitrosamines. Retrieved from http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/nitrosamines/

[179] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[180] National Toxicology Program, (NTP). (2016). Report on carcinogens, fourteenth edition: N-nitrosamines: 15 listings. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/pubhealth/roc/index-1.html

[181] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[182] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[183] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[184] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[185] Environmental Working Group, (EWG). (2007). Impurities of concern in personal care products. Accessed Jan 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.ewg.org/skindeep/2007/02/04/impurities-of-concern-in-personal-care-products/#.WmIzcjfat_A

[186] Cosmetic Ingredient Review, (CIR). (2011). Cosmetic ingredients/material prohibited/restricted by FDA. Retrieved from https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/prohibitedrestrictedbyFDA%2011-30-2011.pdf

[187] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[188] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[189] Cosmetic Ingredient Review, (CIR). (2011). Cosmetic ingredients/material prohibited/restricted by FDA. Retrieved from https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/prohibitedrestrictedbyFDA%2011-30-2011.pdf

[190] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[191] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[192] Cosmetic Ingredient Review, (CIR). (2011). Cosmetic ingredients/material prohibited/restricted by FDA. Retrieved from https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/prohibitedrestrictedbyFDA%2011-30-2011.pdf

[193] Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, (SCCS). (2012) Opinion on nitrosamines and secondary amines in cosmetic products. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_090.pdf

[194] Schlumpf, M., Schmid, P., Durrer, S., Conscience, M., Maerkel, K., Henseler, M., Gruetter, M., Herzog, I., Reolon, S., Ceccatelli, R., Faass, O., Stutz, E., Hubertus, J., Wuttke, W., & Lichtensteiger, W. (2004). Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters—an update. Toxicology, 205(1), 113-122. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2004.06.043

[195] Krause, M., Klit, A., Blomberg Jensen, M., Søeborg, T., Frederiksen, H., Schlumpf, M., Lichtensteiger, W., skakkebaek, N.E., & Drzewiecki, K. T. (2012). Sunscreens: Are they beneficial for health? an overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV‐filters. International Journal of Andrology, 35(3), 424-436. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01280.x

[196] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: Octinoxate. Accessed Jan 22, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[197] European Commission. (2011). EU-strategy for endocrine disruptors priority list database. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/endocrine/strategy/substances_en.htm#priority_list

[198] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: octinoxate. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[199] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: octinoxate. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[200] Department of Ecology State of Washington. Chemicals of high concern to children reporting list. (n.d.) Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://ecology.wa.gov/Regulations-Permits/Reporting-requirements/Reporting-for-Childrens-Safe-Products-Act/Chemicals-of-high-concern-to-children

[201] Minnesota Department of Health. Chemicals of high concern list. (2016). Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/hazardous/topics/toxfreekids/highconcern.html

[202] Maine Department of Environmental Protection. Chemicals of High Concern. (2012). Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.maine.gov/dep/safechem/highconcern/

[203] Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families. (2013). The Hazardous 100+ List of Chemicals of Concern. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from http://saferchemicals.org/sc/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2014/05/mindthestore.org-full-list-toxic-chemicals.pdf?x38790

[204] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: octyl salicylate. Accessed Jan 26, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[205] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: octocrylene. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[206] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (n.d.). Search engine for the results of domestic substances categorization: 6197-30-4. Government of Canada. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from https://pollution-waste.canada.ca/substances-search/Substance?lang=en

[207] National Center for Biotechnology Information, (NCBI). (2018). Oxybenzone. PubChem Open Chemistry Database. Accessed Jan 19, 2018. Retrieved from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/4632

[208] Krause, M., Klit, A., Blomberg Jensen, M., Søeborg, T., Frederiksen, H., Schlumpf, M., Lichtensteiger, W., skakkebaek, N.E., & Drzewiecki, K. T. (2012). Sunscreens: Are they beneficial for health? An overview of endocrine disrupting properties of UV‐filters. International Journal of Andrology, 35(3), 424-436. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2605.2012.01280.x

[209] Schlumpf, M., Schmid, P., Durrer, S., Conscience, M., Maerkel, K., Henseler, M., Gruetter, M., Herzog, I., Reolon, S., Ceccatelli, R., Faass, O., Stutz, E., Hubertus, J., Wuttke, W., & Lichtensteiger, W. (2004). Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters—an update. Toxicology, 205(1), 113-122. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2004.06.043

[210] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: oxybenzone. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[211] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: oxybenzone. Accessed Jan 25, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[212] Scientific Committee on Consumer Products, (SCCS). (2008). Opinion on benzophenone-3. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_159.pdf

[213] Scientific Committee on Consumer Products, (SCCS). (2008). Opinion on benzophenone-3. European Commission. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_159.pdf

[214] Darbre, P. D., & Harvey, P. W. (2008). Paraben esters: Review of recent studies of endocrine toxicity, absorption, esterase and human exposure, and discussion of potential human health risks. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 28(5), 561-578. doi:10.1002/jat.1358

[215] Breast Cancer Prevention Partners. (2017). Parabens. Accessed Jan 10, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.bcpp.org/resource/parabens/

[216] Oishi, S. (2001). Effects of butylparaben on the male reproductive system in rats. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 17(1), 31-39. doi:10.1191/0748233701th093oa

[217] Taxvig, C., Vinggaard, A. M., Hass, U., Axelstad, M., Boberg, J., Hansen, P. R., . . . Nellemann, C. (2008). Do parabens have the ability to interfere with steroidogenesis? Toxicological Sciences, 106(1), 206-213. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfn148

[218] Kawaguchi, M., Morohoshi, K., Masuda, J., Watanabe, G., Morita, M., Imai, H., . . . Himi, T. (2009). Maternal isobutyl-paraben exposure decreases the plasma corticosterone level in dams and sensitivity to estrogen in female offspring rats. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 71(8), 1027-1033. doi:10.1292/jvms.71.1027

[219] Wang, Z., DeWitt, J. C., Higgins, C. P., & Cousins, I. T. (2017). A never-ending story of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)? Environmental Science & Technology, 51(5), 2508-2518. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b04806

[220] Lerner, S. (2016, Mar 3,). A chemical shell game: how DuPont concealed the dangers of the new Teflon Toxin. The Teflon toxin part 8. The Intercept. Retrieved from https://theintercept.com/2016/03/03/how-dupont-concealed-the-dangers-of-the-new-teflon-toxin/

[221] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: PFOA. Accessed Jan 26, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[222] The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. (2008). All POPs listed in the Stockholm convention. Retrieved from http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/ThePOPs/AllPOPs/tabid/2509/Default.aspx

[223] The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. (2008). All POPs listed in the Stockholm convention. Retrieved from http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/ThePOPs/AllPOPs/tabid/2509/Default.aspx

[224] The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. (2008). All POPs listed in the Stockholm convention. Retrieved from http://chm.pops.int/TheConvention/ThePOPs/AllPOPs/tabid/2509/Default.aspx

[225] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: PFOA. Accessed Jan 26, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[226] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: PFOA. Accessed Jan 26, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[227] Regulation (EC) no 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending regulation (EC) no 1907/2006, (2008). Retrieved from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:02008R1272-20170101.

[228] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2012). Chemicals Considered or Listed Under Proposition 65: Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Jan 26, 2018. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/perfluorooctanoic-acid-pfoa-and-its-salts

[229] National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan. (2013). Accessed Jan 26, 2018. GHS classification results. Retrieved from http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/english/ghs/all_fy_e.html

[230] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: PFOA. Accessed Jan 26, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[231] Drago, B., Shah, N. S., & Shah, S. H. (2014). Acute permethrin neurotoxicity: Variable presentations, high index of suspicion. Toxicology Reports, 1, 1026-1028. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.09.007

[232] Drago, B., Shah, N. S., & Shah, S. H. (2014). Acute permethrin neurotoxicity: Variable presentations, high index of suspicion. Toxicology Reports, 1, 1026-1028. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.09.007

[233] Abdel-Rahman, A., Shetty, A. K., & Abou-Donia, M. B. (2001). Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum. Experimental Neurology, 172(1), 153-171. doi:10.1006/exnr.2001.7807

[234] Nasuti, C., Carloni, M., Fedeli, D., Gabbianelli, R., Stefano, A. D., Serafina, C. L., . . . Ciccocioppo, R. (2013). Effects of early life permethrin exposure on spatial working memory and on monoamine levels in different brain areas of pre-senescent rats. Toxicology, 303, 162-168. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2012.09.016

[235] Nasuti, C., Carloni, M., Fedeli, D., Gabbianelli, R., Stefano, A. D., Serafina, C. L., . . . Ciccocioppo, R. (2013). Effects of early life permethrin exposure on spatial working memory and on monoamine levels in different brain areas of pre-senescent rats. Toxicology, 303, 162-168. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2012.09.016

[236] Abdel-Rahman, A., Shetty, A. K., & Abou-Donia, M. B. (2001). Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum. Experimental Neurology, 172(1), 153-171. doi:10.1006/exnr.2001.7807

[237] Abdel-Rahman, A., Shetty, A. K., & Abou-Donia, M. B. (2001). Subchronic dermal application of N,N-diethyl m-toluamide (DEET) and permethrin to adult rats, alone or in combination, causes diffuse neuronal cell death and cytoskeletal abnormalities in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and purkinje neuron loss in the cerebellum. Experimental Neurology, 172(1), 153-171. doi:10.1006/exnr.2001.7807

[238] Hasenbein, S., Lawler, S. P., Geist, J., & Connon, R. E. (2016). A long-term assessment of pesticide mixture effects on aquatic invertebrate communities. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 35(1), 218-232. doi:10.1002/etc.3187

[239] Drago, B., Shah, N. S., & Shah, S. H. (2014). Acute permethrin neurotoxicity: Variable presentations, high index of suspicion. Toxicology Reports, 1, 1026-1028. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.09.007

[240] Pesticide Action Network International, (PAN). (2016). PAN international list of highly hazardous pesticides. Pesticide Action Network North America. Retrieved from http://www.panna.org/resources/publication-factsheetsbriefs/highly-hazardous-pesticides

[241] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC). (2017). Phthalates factsheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed Jan 29, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/phthalates_factsheet.html

[242] Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, (CFSC). (2018). Phthalates. Retrieved from http://www.safecosmetics.org/get-the-facts/chemicals-of-concern/phthalates/

[243] World Health Organization, & United Nations Environment Programme. (2013). State of the science of endocrine disrupting chemicals – 2012: An assessment of the state of the science of endocrine disruptors prepared by a group of experts for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and WHO. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ceh/publications/endocrine/en/

[244] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: benzyl butyl phthalate. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[245] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[246] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: diethyl phthalate. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[247] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2011). Search the TEDX list: dioctyl phthalate. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[248] World Health Organization, & United Nations Environment Programme. (2013). State of the science of endocrine disrupting chemicals – 2012: An assessment of the state of the science of endocrine disruptors prepared by a group of experts for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and WHO. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ceh/publications/endocrine/en/

[249] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2005). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/di-n-butyl-phthalate-dbp

[250] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2005). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/di-n-hexyl-phthalate-dnhp

[251] World Health Organization, & United Nations Environment Programme. (2013). State of the science of endocrine disrupting chemicals – 2012: An assessment of the state of the science of endocrine disruptors prepared by a group of experts for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and WHO. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/ceh/publications/endocrine/en/

[252] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2005). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/di-n-butyl-phthalate-dbp

[253] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2005). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/di-n-hexyl-phthalate-dnhp

[254] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2005). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/di-n-butyl-phthalate-dbp

[255] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2005). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Butyl benzyl phthalate. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/butyl-benzyl-phthalate

[256] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2007). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/di-isodecyl-phthalate-didp

[257] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2005). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Butyl benzyl phthalate. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/butyl-benzyl-phthalate

[258] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2013). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Diisononyl phthalate(DINP). California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Oct 15, 2017. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/diisononyl-phthalate-dinp

[259] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC). (2017). Phthalates factsheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed Jan 29, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/phthalates_factsheet.html

[260] Yang, C. Z., Yaniger, S. I., Jordan, V. C., Klein, D. J., & Bittner, G. D. (2011). Most plastic products release estrogenic chemicals: A potential health problem that can be solved. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(7), 989-996. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003220

[261] Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. (2015). Safety assessment of PEGs cocamine and related ingredients as used in cosmetics. Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Retrieved from https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/pgcoca072015_FAR.pdf

[262] Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. (2015). Safety assessment of PEGs cocamine and related ingredients as used in cosmetics. Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Retrieved from https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/pgcoca072015_FAR.pdf

[263] Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. (2015). Safety assessment of PEGs cocamine and related ingredients as used in cosmetics. Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Retrieved from https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/pgcoca072015_FAR.pdf

[264] Black, R. E., Hurley, F. J., & Havery, D. C. (2001). Occurrence of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic raw materials and finished cosmetic products. Journal of AOAC International, 84(3), 666-670. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11417628

[265] Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. (2015). Safety assessment of PEGs cocamine and related ingredients as used in cosmetics. Cosmetic Ingredient Review. Retrieved from https://www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/pgcoca072015_FAR.pdf

[266] Jang, H., Shin, C. Y., & Kim, K. (2015). Safety evaluation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) compounds for cosmetic use. Toxicological Research, 31(2), 105-136. doi:10.5487/TR.2015.31.2.105

[267] Boor, B. E., Järnström, H., Novoselac, A., & Xu, Y. (2014). Infant exposure to emissions of volatile organic compounds from crib mattresses. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(6), 3541. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24548111

[268] Center for Health, Environment & Justice, (CHEJ). (n.d.) PVC, the poison plastic unhealthy for our nation’s children and schools. Accessed Jan 29, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.chej.org/pvcfactsheets/The_Poison_Plastic.html

[269] Yang, C. Z., Yaniger, S. I., Jordan, V. C., Klein, D. J., & Bittner, G. D. (2011). Most plastic products release estrogenic chemicals: A potential health problem that can be solved. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(7), 989-996. doi:10.1289/ehp.1003220

[270] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2015). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/TP.asp?id=787&tid=153

[271] Nasuti, C., Carloni, M., Fedeli, D., Gabbianelli, R., Stefano, A. D., Serafina, C. L., . . . Ciccocioppo, R. (2013). Effects of early life permethrin exposure on spatial working memory and on monoamine levels in different brain areas of pre-senescent rats. Toxicology, 303, 162-168. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2012.09.016

[272] Beyond Pesticides. (n.d.). Synthetic pyrethroids. Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/Synthetic%20Pyrethroids.pdf

[273] Nasuti, C., Carloni, M., Fedeli, D., Gabbianelli, R., Stefano, A. D., Serafina, C. L., . . . Ciccocioppo, R. (2013). Effects of early life permethrin exposure on spatial working memory and on monoamine levels in different brain areas of pre-senescent rats. Toxicology, 303, 162-168. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2012.09.016

[274] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2015). Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/TP.asp?id=787&tid=153

[275] Beyond Pesticides. (n.d.). Synthetic pyrethroids. Accessed Jun 15, 2016. Retrieved from https://www.beyondpesticides.org/assets/media/documents/pesticides/factsheets/Synthetic%20Pyrethroids.pdf

[276] National Toxicology Program, (NTP). (2012). NTP technical report on the photocarcinogenesis study of retinoic acid and retinyl plamitate [CAS nos. 302-79-4 (all-trans-retinoic acid) and 79-81-2 (all-trans-retinyl palmitate)] in SKH-1 mice (simulated solar light and topical application study): NTP TR 568. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/lt_rpts/tr568_508.pdf

[277] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (1989). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: All-trans retinoic acid. California Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/all-trans-retinoic-acid

[278] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (n.d.). Search engine for the results of domestic substances categorization: retinoic acid. Government of Canada. Accessed Jan 29, 2018. Retrieved from https://pollution-waste.canada.ca/substances-search/Substance?lang=en

[279] Environmental Working Group, (EWG). (2017). The problem with vitamin A. EWG Sunscreen Guide. Retrieved from https://www.ewg.org/sunscreen/report/the-problem-with-vitamin-a/#.Wm-xuDfat_A

[280] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2008). Screening assessment for the challenge: Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4). Government of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/ese-ees/default.asp?lang=En&n=2481B508-1#a12

[281] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2011). Report of the board of review for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (siloxane D5). Government of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/default.asp?lang=En&n=515887B7-1&offset=1&toc=show

[282] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2008). Screening assessment for the challenge dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.ec.gc.ca/ese-ees/FC0D11E7-DB34-41AA-B1B3-E66EFD8813F1/batch2_540-97-6_en.pdf

[283] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2008). Screening assessment for the challenge: Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4). Government of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.ec.gc.ca/ese-ees/default.asp?lang=En&n=2481B508-1#a12

[284] European Commission. (2011). EU-strategy for endocrine disruptors priority list database. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/endocrine/strategy/substances_en.htm#priority_list

[285] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: Cyclotetrasiloxane. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[286] Chemsec: The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: cyclotetrasiloxane. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/search/search?query=Cyclotetrasiloxane

[287] Chemsec: The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: cyclotetrasiloxane. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/search/search?query=Cyclotetrasiloxane

[288] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: cyclopentasiloxane. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[289] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2008). Screening assessment for the challenge dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.ec.gc.ca/ese-ees/FC0D11E7-DB34-41AA-B1B3-E66EFD8813F1/batch2_540-97-6_en.pdf

[290] Minnesota Department of Health. Chemicals of high concern list. (2016). Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/hazardous/topics/toxfreekids/highconcern.html

[291] Maine Department of Environmental Protection. Chemicals of High Concern. (2012). Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.maine.gov/dep/safechem/highconcern/

[292] Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families. (2013). The Hazardous 100+ List of Chemicals of Concern. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from http://saferchemicals.org/sc/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2014/05/mindthestore.org-full-list-toxic-chemicals.pdf?x38790

[293] Ivanković, T., & Hrenović, J. (2010). Surfactants in the environment. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 61(1), 95-110. doi:10.2478/10004-1254-61-2010-1943

[294] Cserháti, T., Forgács, E., & Oros, G. (2002). Biological activity and environmental impact of anionic surfactants. Environment International, 28(5), 337-348. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00032-6

[295] Yuan, C. L., Xu, Z. Z., Fan, M. X., Liu, H. Y., Xie, Y. H., & Zhu, T. (2014). Study on characteristics and harm of surfactants. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 6(7), 2233-2237. Retrieved from http://www.jocpr.com/articles/study-on-characteristics-and-harm-of-surfactants.pdf

[296] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (2015). EPA’s safer choice standard. EPA Safer Choice Program. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2013-12/documents/standard-for-safer-products.pdf

[297] European Commission. (2018). Specific chemicals: Detergents. Accessed Jan 31, 2018. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/chemicals/specific-chemicals_en

[298] European Commission. (2018). Specific chemicals: Detergents. Accessed Jan 31, 2018. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/chemicals/specific-chemicals_en

[299] Friends of the Earth, & ETC Group. (2017). GMO 2.0: Synthetic biology A guide to protecting natural products. Retrieved from https://1bps6437gg8c169i0y1drtgz-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/SynbioFreeCompanyGuide.pdf

[300] Friends of the Earth. (2015). Issue brief: Synthetic biology: GMOs 2.0. Retrieved from http://webiva-downton.s3.amazonaws.com/877/88/b/5292/Issue_brief_-_Synbio_GMOs_2_2015.pdf

[301] Friends of the Earth, & ETC Group. (2017). GMO 2.0: Synthetic biology A guide to protecting natural products. Retrieved from https://1bps6437gg8c169i0y1drtgz-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/SynbioFreeCompanyGuide.pdf

[302] Friends of the Earth, & ETC Group. (2017). GMO 2.0: Synthetic biology A guide to protecting natural products. Retrieved from https://1bps6437gg8c169i0y1drtgz-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/SynbioFreeCompanyGuide.pdf

[303] Campaign for Safe Cosmetics (CFSC), Environmental Working Group (EWG), Breast Cancer Fund (BCF), & Commonweal. (2010). Not so sexy: The health risks of secret chemicals in fragrance. Retrieved from http://www.ewg.org/research/not-so-sexy

[304] Moon, H., Lee, D., Lee, Y. S., & Kannan, K. (2011). Occurrence and accumulation patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and synthetic musk compounds in adipose tissues of Korean females. Chemosphere, 86, 485-490. Retrieved from doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.10.008

[305] Campaign for Safe Cosmetics (CFSC), Environmental Working Group (EWG), Breast Cancer Fund (BCF), & Commonweal. (2010). Not so sexy: The health risks of secret chemicals in fragrance. Retrieved from http://www.ewg.org/research/not-so-sexy

[306] Lignell, S., Darnerud, P. O., Aune, M., Cnattingius, S., Hajslova, J., Setkova, L., & Glynn, A. (2008). Temporal trends of synthetic musk compounds in mother′s milk and associations with personal use of perfumed products. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(17), 6743-6748. doi:10.1021/es800626n

[307] U.S. Food & Drug Administration, (FDA). (2017). Talc. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/Ingredients/ucm293184.htm

[308] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). (1990). Chemicals Considered or Listed Under Proposition 65: Talc containing asbestiform fibers. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed Jan 29, 2018. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/talc-containing-asbestiform-fibers

[309] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2015). Public health statement: Toluene. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=159&tid=29

[310] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2001). Toluene (C6H5CH3) CAS 108-88-3; UN 1294. Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/MHMI/mmg56.pdf

[311] Porter, C. A. (2009). Overexposed & uninformed: Dismantling barriers to health and safety in California nail salons REPORT & POLICY AGENDA. California Healthy Nail Salon Collaborative. Retrieved from https://static1.squarespace.com/static/5783e9b9be6594e480435ffe/t/58f44912c534a59e933441dc/1492404500912/OverexposedAndUnderinformed.pdf

[312] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, (ATSDR). (2015). Public health statement: Toluene. Retrieved from https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/phs/phs.asp?id=159&tid=29

[313] Ng, T. P., Foo, S. C., & Yoong, T. (1992). Risk of spontaneous abortion in workers exposed to toluene. British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 49(11), 804-808. doi:10.1136/oem.49.11.804

[314] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, (OEHHA). (2016). Toluene. California Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/toluene

[315] Ahn, K. C., Zhao, B., Chen, J., Cherednichenko, G., Sanmarti, E., Denison, M. S., . . . Hammock, B. D. (2008). In vitro biologic activities of the antimicrobials triclocarban, its analogs, and triclosan in bioassay screens: Receptor-based bioassay screens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(9), 1203-1210. doi:10.1289/ehp.11200

[316] Chen, J., Ahn, K. C., Gee, N. A., Ahmed, M. I., Duleba, A. J., Zhao, L., . . . Lasley, B. L. (2008). Triclocarban enhances testosterone action: A new type of endocrine disruptor? Endocrinology, 149(3), 1173-1179. doi:10.1210/en.2007-1057

[317] Christen, V., Crettaz, P., Oberli-Schrämmli, A., & Fent, K. (2010). Some flame retardants and the antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban enhance the androgenic activity in vitro. Chemosphere, 81(10), 1245-1252. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.09.031

[318] Huang, H., Du, G., Zhang, W., Hu, J., Wu, D., Song, L., . . . Wang, X. (2014). The in vitro estrogenic activities of triclosan and triclocarban. Journal of Applied Toxicology, 34(9), 1060-1067. doi:10.1002/jat.3012\

[319] James, M. O., Li, W., Summerlot, D. P., Rowland-Faux, L., & Wood, C. E. (2010). Triclosan is a potent inhibitor of estradiol and estrone sulfonation in sheep placenta. Environment International, 36(8), 942-949. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2009.02.004

[320] Kumar, V., Chakraborty, A., Kural, M. R., & Roy, P. (2009). Alteration of testicular steroidogenesis and histopathology of reproductive system in male rats treated with triclosan. Reproductive Toxicology, 27(2), 177-185. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2008.12.002

[321] Paul, K. B., Hedge, J. M., DeVito, M. J., & Crofton, K. M. (2010). Short-term exposure to triclosan decreases thyroxine in vivo via upregulation of hepatic catabolism in young long-evans rats. Toxicological Sciences, 113(2), 367-379. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfp271

[322] Zorrilla, L. M., Gibson, E. K., Jeffay, S. C., Crofton, K. M., Setzer, W. R., Cooper, R. L., & Stoker, T. E. (2009). The effects of triclosan on puberty and thyroid hormones in male wistar rats. Toxicological Sciences, 107(1), 56-64. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfn225

[323] Beyond Pesticides. (n.d.) Triclosan: Environmental fate and effects. Accessed Jun 20, 2017. Retrieved from http://www.beyondpesticides.org/programs/antibacterials/triclosan/environmental-effects

[324] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (n.d.). Search engine for the results of domestic substances categorization: Triclosan. Government of Canada. Accessed Jun 20, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/eng/subs_list/DSL/DSLsearch.cfm

[325] Environment and Climate Change Canada. (n.d.). Search engine for the results of domestic substances list categorization: Triclocarban. Government of Canada. Accessed Jun 20, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.ec.gc.ca/lcpe-cepa/eng/subs_list/DSL/DSLsearch.cfm

[326] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (n.d.). Details for triclosan. Accessed Jun 20, 2017. Retrieved from https://iaspub.epa.gov/apex/pesticides/f?p=PPLS:1

[327] Federal Drug Administration, (FDA). (2016). Antibacterial soap? you can skip it– use plain soap and water. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm378393.htm#3

[328] Scranton, A. (2016). Three things to know about FDA’s recent ban on triclosan. Retrieved from http://www.womensvoices.org/2016/10/25/three-things-know-fdas-recent-ban-triclosan/

[329] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2017). Search the TEDX list: triethanolamine. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[330] National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Japan. (2013). GHS classification results. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.safe.nite.go.jp/english/ghs/all_fy_e.html

[331] Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics. (2009-2012). Exposure code lookup. Accessed Jan 30, 2018. Retrieved from http://www.aoecdata.org/expcodelookup.aspx

[332] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2016). Dioxins and their effects on health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dioxins-and-their-effects-on-human-health

[333] Health Canada. (2005). Dioxins and furans. (2005). Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/hc-sc/migration/hc-sc/hl-vs/alt_formats/pacrb-dgapcr/pdf/iyh-vsv/environ/dioxin-eng.pdf

[334] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (n.d.) Dioxins and Furans. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/wastemin/web/pdf/dioxfura.pdf

[335] Energy Justice Network. (n.d.). Dioxins & furans: The most toxic chemicals known to science. Retrieved from http://www.ejnet.org/dioxin/

[336] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). (2018). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Dioxin. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[337] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). (2018). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Furan. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[338] Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA). (n.d.) Dioxins and furans. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/hazard/wastemin/web/pdf/dioxfura.pdf

[339] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2018). Search the TEX list: Dioxin. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[340] The Endocrine Disruption Exchange, (TEDX). (2018). Search the TEX list: Furan. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[341] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). (2018). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Dioxin. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[342] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). (2018). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: Furan. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/proposition-65-list

[343] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2018). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: Furan. Accessed May 22, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[344] Health Canada. (2005). Dioxins and furans. (2005). Government of Canada. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/hc-sc/migration/hc-sc/hl-vs/alt_formats/pacrb-dgapcr/pdf/iyh-vsv/environ/dioxin-eng.pdf

[345] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2016). Dioxins and their effects on health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dioxins-and-their-effects-on-human-health

[346] World Health Organization, (WHO). (2016). Dioxins and their effects on health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/dioxins-and-their-effects-on-human-health

[347] As You Sow. (n.d). Policy for Nanomaterials in Food and Food Packaging. Accessed Mar 12, 2018. Retrieved from https://archive.asyousow.org/our-work/environmental-health/nanomaterials/policy-for-nanomaterials-in-food-and-food-packaging/

[348] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2018). Search the TEDX list: styrene. Accessed May 31,2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[349] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: styrene. Accessed May 31, 2018.. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[350] Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). (2012). Chemicals considered or listed under proposition 65: styrene. California Environmental Protection Agency. Accessed May 31,2018. Retrieved from https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65/chemicals/14-dioxane

[351] International Agency for Research on Cancer, (IARC). (2002). IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans: some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene. (Vol. 82). Lyon, France: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol82/mono82.pdf

[352] National Toxicology Program, (NTP). (2011). Report on carcinogens, fourteenth edition: styrene. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/content/profiles/styrene.pdf

[353] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: styrene. Accessed May 31, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[354] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: styrene. Accessed May 31, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[355] Chemsec – The International Chemical Secretariat. (2017). Search the SIN (substitute it now) list: resorcinol. Accessed May 31, 2018. Retrieved from http://sinlist.chemsec.org/

[356] The Endocrine Disruptor Exchange, (TEDX). (2018). Search the TEDX list: resorcinol. Accessed May 31,2018. Retrieved from http://endocrinedisruption.org/interactive-tools/tedx-list-of-potential-endocrine-disruptors/search-the-tedx-list

[357] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, (CDC). (2003). International chemical safety cards (ICSC): Resorcinol. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsneng/neng1033.html

[358] New Jersey Department of Health. (2010). Right to know hazardous substance fact sheet: Resorcinol. Retrieved from http://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/1634.pdf

[359] Environmental Protection Authority. (n.d.) Data base search – approved hazardous substances with controls: Resorcinol. Government of Australia. Accessed May 31, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.epa.govt.nz/database-search/approved-hazardous-substances-with-controls/view/2822

[360] Environmental Protection Authority. (n.d.) Data base search – approved hazardous substances with controls: Resorcinol. Government of Australia. Accessed May 31, 2018. Retrieved from https://www.epa.govt.nz/database-search/approved-hazardous-substances-with-controls/view/2822